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Family Dipterocarpaceae

 

 

 

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Anisoptera laevis
mersawa durian
Malaya, Sumatra & Borneo. Most common of genera widely distributed between 300 & 900 m. Vulnerable, due to logging & habitat loss; small smooth leaf, sparse reddish scales on lower surface. Planted 6/07.

Anisoptera laevis.

Anisoptera marginata
mersawa paya
E Sumatra, Malaya, Borneo. In Malaya near coastal peat swamp forest of S Perak, Selangor, Pahang, and Johor. Critically endangered by land conversion. Smooth leaves, bright yellow under. 1 fr TH 11/09

Anisoptera marginata leaf. Anisoptera marginata.
Anisoptera scaphula
mersawa gajah
South from Chittagong; most common in north of Malaya but found as far south as NS. Favours low altitudes and deep gorges, now endangered through range. Large thin glabrous leaf. Very large trees, up to 9m girth. Planted 6/07.
Anisoptera sp.
mersawa
Small genus of about 14 species, 7 in Malay peninsula. Most have distinctive leaf: prominent looped marginal vein. High silica content of wood makes sawing difficult. Large buttresses were frequently cut to make pans for tin washing.
Dipterocarpus baudii
keruing bulu
Indo China, Burma, Thailand, Malaya, Sumatra. In every state, but rare, used to be comparatively abundant in Sungai Buloh. Rapid early growth, girth of 3' in 20 years. Prefers low lying but well drained forest.

Dipterocarpus chartaceus
keruing kertas
From Thailand to Johor, but rare, generally in low coastal locations. Crisp papery dead leaf. Twigs are terminated by buds protected by sheathing stipules that fall to reveal a young folded leaf and another expanding bud beneath.

Dipterocarpus cornutus
keruing gombang
Malaya & Borneo. Rare over large areas, but common in parts of Perak, Ulu Selangor, K. Pilah, w. Pahang and w. Johor. Conspicuous crown of large light coloured leaves. Twigs and buds covered with velvety tomentum. Leaves oblong, 20 x 12 cm, with c. 20 prs nerves, ridges between.
Dipterocarpus costulatus
keruing kipas

All states Malaya, Sumatra, N. Borneo. On low lying flood prone land, & on hills. Endangered. Leathery, glabrous, ridged leaf acute at the base. Grey bole, bark studded with lenticles, stipules to 16 cm, tomentose, pastel pink. Planted 6/07.

Dipterocarpus crinitus Dyer
keruing mempalas
Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo; these from Labis FR, Johor. Prefers low drained land, now vulnerable, small population at Pasoh. Small harshly hairy oval leaf. Stipules up to 5 x 2.5 cm, boat shaped, smooth or w/deciduous hairs, pink when fresh. Viable fruits rare, excessively insect predated.

Dipterocarpus crinitus stipule. Dipterocarpus crinitus sapling.

Dipterocarpus crinitus.

Dipterocarpus crinitus stipule.

Dipterocarpus dyeri
keruing etoi, keruing daun besar
From Cochin, China,Thailand, Burma to north Malay peninsula, in Perlis & north Kedah only, at low elevations, critically endangered. Coarse twigs, slender petioles, many nerved leaves, base cordate.

Dipterocarpus elongatus
keruing latek
Malaya, NE Sumatra, N Borneo. Usually in low lying forest, near swamps or on flood prone land, critically endangered by land conversion. Large many nerved leaves, & large wingless fruits.

 

Dipterocarpus eurhyncus Miq.
keruing baran
Sumatra, Borneo, S Philippines, Malaya in east coast south of KT, was common Arong FR Johor, now critically endangered. Small ridged leaf.
From Tunas Harapan 6.2012.

Dipterocarpus eurhyncus.

Dipterocarpus gracilis
keruing kesat
Chittagong, Andamans, Vietnam, Malaya, Java, Sumatra, Philippines. Endangered. Grey bole w/reddish patches where scales have fallen; finely lenticillated bark. Leaves 15 x 8 cm, 14 -18 nerved. Planted 6/07.

Stipule of dipterocarpus gracilis.

Dipterocarpus grandiflorus
keruing belimbing
From Andamans to Philippines; widespread in Malaya. Name from calyx tube like belimbing. Bole light yellow, scaly, with smooth lenticellate portions. Stipules v. large before falling, 18 x 5 cm, purple pink when fresh. Fruits among the largest of the genus. Young leaves of saplings dark purple. Planted 6/07.

Stipule of Dipterocarpus grandiflorus.

Dipterocarpus kunstleri
keruing gombang merah

Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines. Lowlands, now endangered. Twigs w/broad stipular collars, large glabrous leaves. Young boles marked w/horizontal furrows, older yellowish bark studded w/diffuse, medium lenticels. Linear stipules. Leaves broad ovate or elliptic, 22 x 15 cm, 15 nerved, petioles 5-7 cm, black, glabrous. Planted 6/07.

Dipterocarpus oblongifolius Bl.
keruing neram
Borneo, Malaya, along rivers above tidal zone, strictly riparian. Rare in west, but in Bubu FR Perak. Secure in Taman Negara, but threatened elsewhere. Thick fissured bark, sub-ovate velvety leaves. Fr Tunas Harapan 6.2012.

Dipterocarpus sarawakensis Sloot
keruing layang
Sarawak, Brunei, south Borneo, & near Kemaman River, Terengganu. On low leached sandy soils. Extinct in Malaya? Small obovate obtuse leaf, wavy margin towards apex, short petiole, dense coarse indumentum. Fr Tunas Harapan 6.2012.

Dipterocarpus sublamellatus Foxw.
keruing kerut
Sumatra, N Borneo, Malaya. Most abundant on undulating land s of Temerloh, scattered on west coast. Small ridged leaves, sub-lamellate fruits. Fr Tunas Harapan 6.2012.

Dryobalanops aromatica
kapor
Sumatra, Rhiau, Borneo. In Malaya confined to northern east coast, except for small important area near Rawang. Distinguished by aromatic crushed leaf, wood resistant to fugal attack.

Dryobalanops oblongifolia Dyer
keladan
Malaya, e Sumatra, w & centr Borneo, seasonally flooded forest, but absent in deep peat. Used to build boats. Vulnerable due to habitat loss. Large canopy trees, bark closely studded w/small lenticels, heavy wingless fruits. Seed c 2.5 cm enclosed at base by 5-lobed calyx tube.

2 new speciments June 2008, pictured below right.

Dryobalanops oblongifolia.

Dryobalanops oblongifolia.

Hopea auriculata Foxw.
merawan
Rare endemic fr Panti, Johor & G. Tapis, Pahang. Lanceolate few nerved leaf w/ almost invisible tertiary venation, and auriculate fruit, 2 winged, 7x1.5cm. Small trees, smooth bark.

Hopea bilitonensis Ashton
no recorded local name
Banka, Bilitung, once on Perak limestone. Long, narrow, equal-based leaves w/remotely tertiary scalariform nerves. Winged ovate fruits, 1 cm w/short point, sepals narrowly winged at base, 2 longer and 3 shorter than nut.

Hopea bilitonensis.
Hopea dryobalanoides
mata kuching hitam

Sumatra, Borneo, Malaya (Kedah, Perak, Sel, NS, Pahang). Endangered. Thin elliptic to oblong lanceolate dryobalanoid leaves. Small trees, adventitious aerial roots; tear-like stalactitic exudations of pale damar. Planted 6/07.

Hopea ferrea Lanessan
malut, cengal batu
Indochina, Thailand, NW Malaya, this from Langkawi. Near or on rocky hills; now endangered. Shaggy bole, small leafed crown that is red in new leaf. Fr Tunas Harapan 6.2012.

Hopea ferruginea.Hopea ferruginea Parjis
mata kucing merah, merawan jangkung
Malaya, Sumatra, Riau, Borneo; Melaka, NS, Johor, on low undulating land. Habitat loss now endangered. Buttresses sharp, stilt roots, bark cracked w/clear dammar.

Hopea ferruginea.

Hopea johorensis
merawan mata kucing pipit
Endemic, confined to E Johor. Vulnerable. Reddish brown powdery surface of the bole, exudations of damar mata kucing and small many nerved leaves. Fr Tunas Harapan 6.2012.

Hopea mengarawan
merawan penak, pengarawan jangkang

Sumatra, Malaya, Borneo. East coast & south peninsula. On low, often swampy land. Often stilt-rooted, jangkang. Endangered, habitat loss, small stipules, reversing curve before falling. Large leathery, many veined leaves; fruits 2 winged. 1 fr TH 11.09

 

Hopea nervosa leaf.Hopea nervosa
merawan jangkang

Borneo & Malaya. Endangered by habitat loss, all states. Smooth barked Hopea up to 2.5m girth. Large oblong leaves w prominent main nerves; large fruits, 2 winged to 10cm; jangkang prominent stilt roots. 1 fr TH 11.09.

Hopea nervosa. Hopea nervosa leaf.

 

 

Hopea nutans
giam
Trenggqanu, Pahang, Johor, sometimes in gregarious and rich stands. Timber very hard heavy and durable, hence greatly depleted.
Hopea odorata
chengal pasir
Indo-China, Burma, Siam, Andaman Is. and north Malaya. Rarely far from streams. Identified by pore-like domatia in leaf axils. Flower petals pale yellow, fruits 2 winged; nut ovate conical. Timber: merawan, commercial in Burma & Siam.

Hopea pierrei HANCE
merawan palung
(trough, ref sunken rib)
S Indochina, Thailand, Pasoh FR, Ulu GombakFR, now endangered by conversion and logging.  This fr Gombak.  Small ovate-acuminate many nerved leaf with midrib depressed on upper surface. Fr Tunas Harapan 6.2012.

Hopea polyalthioides
giam rambai (Ulu Gombak)
Rare endemic, only in well drained forest in one valley in Panti FR Johor; maybe extinct, but this fr Ulu Gombak. Large, long-oblong leaves arranged in distichous sprays and velvety young twigs. Fr Tunas Harapan 6.2012.

Hopea polyalthioides leaf.

Hopea polyalthioides.

Hopea pubescens
merawan bunga
Endemic to Kelantan and Pahang on flat drained land & low hills. Fissured bark, pubescent twigs and small leaves (sparsely hairy on midrib that is sunk on upper surface). Fruit 2 wings only 2cm long, v. small nut.
Hopea sangal
mersiput

Thailand, Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo, islands of Sunda shelf. Typically near rivers. In extreme north its place is taken by closely related and very similar H. odorata (cengal pasir). Vulnerable because of lowland habitat. Planted 6/07.

Hopea subalata
merawan kancing
Endemic to Kancing FR Selangor. Thin oval ovate, caudate-acuminate subdyrobalanoid leaves and almost wingless fruits.  Small smooth barked Hopea to 1m girth, buttresses stilted, w/ adventitious stilt roots, bole straight but not tall.

Hopea sp.

Planted June 2012, from Maxwell Hill.

Neobalanocarpus heimii
cengal
Endemic Malay peninsula. V. large trees, bole with short buttresses, dark bark with irregular fissures becoming scaly in older trees. Produces the primary timber of Malaya. Seeds heavy & wingless fall just beneath parent tree.
Neobalanocarpus heimii.

Parashorea densiflora
meranti pasir

Endemic to southern half of peninsula. Scattered in undulating or hilly forests up to 450m. Now endangered, perhaps critically, by land conversion. Small hairly leaves, and globose fruits with reflexed calyx lobes. Med to lg trees, up to 4m girth; crown heavy dark coloured.

Parashorea malaanonan
urat mata daun licin
Borneo white seraya, not found in Malaya.
TH 6.2012.

Shorea acuminata fruiting.Shorea acuminata
meranti rambai daun
Southern half of Malay peninsula, most abundant in hilly country about 330m. Drooping branchlets, large semi-persistent stipules, unequal sided leaves and purple-red flowers. Grey to reddish bole, rough irregular fissured bark.

Although greatly reduced by forest conversion, this species is not currently at risk. A specimen planted in 1997 at Rimbun Dahan fruited sparsely in Sept 2009.

 

Shorea assamica Dyer subspecies globifera (Ridl.) Sym
meranti pipit (meranti pa'ang) group
From NW India through to Malaya, Sumatra, Philippines, Borneo, Sulawesi, Maluku. Several geographical races are distinct botanical forms, that of Malaya and Sumatra is the form globifera. Comon in north, not found in Selangor. Leaves oval elliptic, 7 x 3cm, 17 nerved.

Shorea balanocarpoides.Shorea balanocarpoides Sym.
damar katup (meranti damar hitam)
N Sumatra, w Borneo, Malaya; from Kedah to Kinta; Kelantan & Terengganu. On undulating low land, endangered by logging, habitat conversion. Large oval 7 nerved leaves, heavy crowns, fruits wingless.

Shorea balanocarpoides stipule.

Shorea bentongensis
meranti mengkai
(meranti pa'ang group)
Endemic sp. found in Ulu Gombak, Bentong, Rompin, NE & S Johor, on low land, deep valleys, endangered by habitat loss. Large trees with smooth bole like sepetir (Sindora spp.), leaves elliptic, c. 15 nerved, large fruit w/ short narrow wings, 3 outer 2 inner. Planted 6/07.

2 new specimens June 2008, pictured below.

Shorea bentongensis stipule. Shorea bentongensis.

Shorea bentongensis

Shorea bentongensis leaves.

Shorea curtisii
seraya
Malaya, from Pattani to Singapore. common and characteristic species of hill dipterocarp forests. Light coloured crowns, lanceolate, glaucescent leaves (pale waxy bloom on upper leaf surface, lower surface pale yellow glaucescent). Large trees to 3m girth, record 7m. Dark red meranti.

Shorea curtisii subsp grandis
Seraya daun besar
Endemic form found only in Keledang Saiong  and Bukit Kinta FRs, Perak, bw 200 and 500m. Deeply fissured bark, leaves resemble seraya, but much larger. Fr Tunas Harapan ’12.

Shorea dasyphylla.Shorea dasyphylla
meranti batu
(red meranti group)
Malaya, eastern Sumatra, Sarawak. Favours low but well drained forest, now (critically?) endangered by land conversion & logging. Leaves ovate lanceolate to elliptic oblong, 11 x 6 cm, variable, 13 nerved, softly tomentose under. Planted 6/07.

Shorea dasyphylla.

Shorea faguetiana
damar siput
(meranti damar hitam group)
Borneo, Malaya. Widely distributed, large tree. Leaves curl up on ground, ovate-lanceolate, 8 x 3 cm, 10 nerved, glabrous, petiole 12 mm, young expanding leaves dark red.
 

Shorea foxworthyi
balau bukit
Endemic species, throughout the peninsula except south of Ulu Selangor on west coast, on undulating land up to 2,000 feet.

Shorea gibbosa leaves.Shorea gibbosa
damar hitam gajah

Malaya, SE Sumatra, Borneo. Malaya only in central & s Johor, Singapore. Pale silvery brown striated dried twigs and larger fruits distinguish it from S. faguetiana, v similar. Larger than damar hitam (S. multiflora). 1 from TH 11/09.

Shorea gibbosa.

Shorea gratissima.Shorea gratissima Dyer
DIPTEROCARPACEA
meranti laut
Peninsula, w Sumatra, Borneo, Singapore. Bukit Jugra. Sm ovate-lanceloate smooth leaf. Girth >3m, short buttresses. 1cm flowers, short stalked fruit, small nut ovate-oblong with short sharp point, 3 outer, 2 inner wings. 

Shorea guiso
membatu
(balau group)
From China to Malaya, Sumatra, Philippines, Borneo. Endangered. Small, thin 16 nerved leaves, 9 x 4 cm. Leaves larger on saplings than on mature trees. Planted 6/07.

Shorea guiso stipule.

Shorea guiso sapling. Shorea guiso leaves.
Shorea guiso leaves.

Shorea gratissima Dyer
meranti laut

Peninsula, w Sumatra, Borneo, Singapore. Bukit Jugra. Sm ovate-lanceloate smooth leaf. Girth >3m, short buttresses. 1cm flowers, short stalked fruit, small nut ovate-oblong with short sharp point, 3 outer, 2 inner wings. 2 planted 6.08.

Shorea gratissima.
Shorea hemsleyana
chengal pasir daun besar
Malay peninsula and Sarawak, especially in swampy land on lower Perak. Common in Ijok and Parit. Timber worked in Parit sawmill, but not plentiful.

Shorea henryana
meranti jerit (scream)

From south lower Burma, S Laos and Vietnam, and SE peninsular Thailand to Perlis, north Kedah and Langkawi. Yellow crown, ovate lanceolate leaves glaucous or pink under, rusty pink twigs. Timber hardest, heaviest, most difficult to saw. 2 planted 8/08.
Shorea henryana.

Shorea hopeifolia
damar siput jantan
Borneo, Sumatra, Malay peninsula, but not Selangor; near streams. Large winged fruit, 3 outer wings (5cm x 1 cm), 2 inner wings (3cm x .5cm), all red when mature.

Shorea hypochra
meranti temak
(meranti pa'ang group)
Cambodia, S. China, Thailand, Riau, Lingga, Malaya. Usually in low swampy forest. Endangered. Large oval to elliptic-oblong leathery leaves. Planted 6/07.

Stipule of Shorea hypochra.

Shorea lamellata Foxw.
meranti lapis
Riau, Borneo, Malaya. S Perak, now critically endangered. Oblong hairly leaves with c 24 prs prominent main nerves. Often >3m girth, short stout buttresses. TH 6.2012

 

Shorea laevis Ridl.
kumus
Burma, Thailand, N Sumatra, Borneo, Malaya. Common on inland ridges, often with S. curtisii   Probably largest trees in balau group. Fresh leaves bright yellow midrib.

HSBG Tawau, Sabah, fr Tunas Harapan ’12.

Shorea laevis.
Shorea lepidota
meranti langgong
Sumatra and Malaya, except Perlis, Kelantan, Selangor, usually on low land. Deeply fissured bark (mature), thin oblong glabrescent leaves, & saplings with persistent falcate stipules and downy twigs.

Shorea leprosula Miq
meranti tembaga
, red meranti group of Shorea
Throughout the peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo. Used to be common on well drained lowland soils and the most abundant form of meranti; now much reduced but still common in protected areas, regenerates vigorously. 11 planted inside front fence in 1989, now (Jan 08) the largest has a CBH of 158 cm, 62". Yellowish brown crown. Leaves elliptical, short blunt acuminate; about 15 nerved, yellow tomentose on lower surface. Twigs hairy.

1 new specimen June 2008, pictured below.

Shorea leprosula.

Shorea longisperma
meranti damar hitam
(meranti damar hitam group)
E. Sumatra, Borneo, Malaya (mainly S). In undulating & low forest, up to 300m. Rare scattered tree; once locally common in parts of Selangor, now critically endangered. V. large trees, fallen leaves curled up, reddish brown on upper, pale and hairy on lower. 13 nerved, petiole 12mm coarsely stellate hairy. Planted 6/07.

Shorea macrantha Brandis
kepong hantu, cengal/meranti pasir

Sumatra, Sarawak, Malaya (lower Sg Perak, E Pahang & Johor). Swampy areas, critically endangered by land conversion. Drooping branchlets; unequal sided leaves, tomentose; large wingless fruits.

New specimen June 2008 pictured below.

Shorea macrantha stipule. Shorea macrantha.

Shorea macrantha.

Shorea macrantha stipule.

Shorea macroptera
melantai
(red meranti group)
Malaya, Sumatra, west Borneo. In low lying well drained forest, to 900m. Frequently assoc with seraya (S. curtisii). Leaves obovate oblong, 13 x 5 cm, variable, frequently folded along midrib, 15 nerved, drying dull yellow brown. Planted 6/07.
Canopy of Shorea materialis.Shorea materialis
balau pasir
Endemic species limited to east coasts of Pahang, Johor and possibly Trengganu. Name refers to sandy habitat on river banks. Broad ovate, glaucous, leathery leaves, prefers low flat land, but largely logged from accessible areas.
Group of Shorea materialis.
Shorea maxima
meranti sengkawang putih
(meranti damar hitam group)
Endemic Perak, S Pahang, & Kelantan. Once common in T. Malim on low hills. Endangered but conserved in parks. Dense crown w/twisted branches, large flowers, large wingless fruits. Small girth, rarely 2m. Leaves oblong lanceolate, 16 x 6cm, 9 nerved. Planted 6/07.

Shorea maxwelliana
damar laut daun kecil
Essentially Malaya, sometimes in Borneo. Prefers well drained positions to 700m, more common on low ridges. Small elliptic/ovate-lanceolate leaves, faintly nerved and usually glaucous under.

 

Shorea multiflora
damar hitam
Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo. Often on ridges in association with seraya (S. curtisii) & kumus (S. leavis). Small leaves dry light, golden brown under; small wingless fruits. Understorey tree.

Shorea ochrophloia
seraya batu
(balau group)
Endemic, all states of Malaya, sporadically on low well drained land & hills up to 300m. Once common, now critically endangered. Yellow grey bole, large trees, girth up to 3m, short buttresses, crown large, heavy, dark coloured. Leaves ovate to elliptic-ovate, 7 x 5cm, 15 nerved. Planted 6/07.

Shorea ovalis
kepong
Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo. A common meranti in lowland forest, favouring lowland and stream side. Boat shaped scabrid leaves, hairy twigs, semi-persistent triangular stipules. One of the largest and tallest trees, often >4m girth (2m in 45 yrs?), sharp buttresses. Light red meranti timber.

Shorea ovata
meranti sarang punai bukit

Malaya, w Sumatra, Borneo, Mindanao. Rarely found outside preferred habitat 600-1300m asl. Oblong hairy stipules to 13mm. Slow growth cf other dark red merantis. 1 from TH 11/09.

Shorea ovata.

Shorea ovata.

Shorea parvifolia
meranti sarang punai
Widely distributed, up to 800m, but generally most at 500m. Frequently the most abundant species of Shorea present in any forest. Semi persistent triangular stipules.

Shorea pauciflora
nemesu
Malaya, Sumatra, N. Borneo. Low but well drained habitat, up to 700m. Common in Ijok FR, Perak. Scaly bole, purplish brown dried leaves, inconspicuous tertiary nerves.
 

Shorea peltata Sym.
meranti telepok
E Sumatra, W and central Borneo, NE Johor in Jemaluang FR. Low land, critically endangered in Malaya. Peltate leaves, telepok for similarity to lotus leaf. 1 fr Tunas Harapan ’12.

Shorea platycarpa
meranti paya
(red meranti group)
Malaya, E. Sumatra. Edges of swamp forests from coastal Perak & Trengganu to Singapore. Locally abundant in Parit. Endangered. Coarsely fissured bark, dark coloured crown, & broad scabrid or tomentose leaves. Elliptic, 17 nerved.

Shorea platyclados showing damar. Shorea platyclados showing damar. Shorea platyclados
meranti bukit, karai

Mountainous areas of Malaya, Sumatra and Borneo in upper dipterocapr forest zone, higher than any other Shorea. Rich stands at the Gap, Fraser's Hill. Flattened branchlets, smooth lanceolate leaves with sharply keeled midrib. Up to 5.5m girth, buttresses stout, bark falling in flat scales. Much logged, endangered.

Shorea platyclados stipule.

Shorea resinosa.Shorea resinosa
meranti belang
(meranti pa'ang group)
Sumatra, Malaya, W Sarawak. Wide range but rare, on undulating hills blw 500m. Critically endangered by habitat loss. Elliptic lanceolate smooth leaf 10 x 4 cm with 13 nerves prominently yellow against darker under surface of dried leaf. Large trees, over 3m girth, no buttresses. Planted 6/07.

Shorea resinosa.2 new specimens June 2008, pictured to the right.

Shorea resinosa stipule.

Shorea roxburghii flower.Shorea roxburghii
temak
, meranti pa'ang group of Shorea
From India (deciduous) to Malaya, very adaptable, north of the Malaya-Burma floristic division. Characteristic of Schima-bamboo forest in Perlis and Kedah. Thick bark, oblong thin, long petioled leaves. Tolerates drought and fire. Likely to expand its range with increasing dryness in remaining forests. It flowers and fruits when just a few years old. Formerly S. talura.

Shorea singkawang
meranti sengkawang
(red meranti group)
Malaya, Lingga, E. Sumatra. In lowland forest from Kedah & Kelantan to Johor. Usually on well drained land up to 400m. Not common. Large purple brown dead leaves, elliptic 20 x 8cm, 13 nerved; large fruits almost wingless. Planted 6/07.

Shorea singkawang var. scabrosa.Shorea singkawang var. scabrosa
meranti sengkawang (red meranti)
Malaya, Lingga, e Sumatra. This sub sp (13 nerved leaf) only in E Terengganu & Pahang, rare, critically endangered. Large purple dead leaves (elliptic oblong 20cm).

Shorea singkawang var. scabrosa stipule.

Shorea sumatrana
sengkawang (balau
group)
Sumatra, Malay peninsula, generally on the east coast. Frequently in low lying swampy habitats along the banks of rivers. Critically endangered by population fragmentation and habitat destruction. Twigs glabrous, leaves elliptic-oblong with about 10 pairs of nerves sharply prominent on undersurface. Fruits have reduced wings, adapted for water dispersal. This was one of the first Dipterocarps planted at Rimbun Dahan in 1990, and the single specimen has a girth of 90 cm (2008). The revised edition of Symington notes a much slower growth rate, to 60 cm in 19 years.

This specimen was felled by a freak gust of wind, 12 Nov 2009. Seedlings propagated from it will be planted at Rimbun Dahan.

Shorea sumatrana branch in flower.

Shorea sumatrana flower.

Shorea sp.
(balau)
Seed from Johor.  Undescribed species.

Shorea sp.

Shorea sp.

(At old fountain)

Shorea sp.

(Front fountain)

Shorea sp.

Vatica cuspidata (Ridl.) Sym.
resak daun runcing
Endemic to Malaya, and most common Vatica, on coastal hills. Vulnerable, due to conversion and placing logging roads on ridges. Long petioled acuminate leaf that dries dark. TH 2012.

Vatica cuspidata.
Vatica flavida Foxw.
Resak padi
Endemic to Parit FR, Keroh & Cikus. Feared extinct. Elliptic-obovate cuspidate leaf with veins hairy on under surface. Yellow flowers in great profusion. These from Univeristi Petronas campus, 2011.

Vatica havilandii stipule.Vatica havilandii Brandis
resak degung
N. Borneo, Malaya: Parit FR. Prefers low forest, critically endangered, close to extinction in Malaya. Obovate-oblong leaf sharp at apex, rounded at base but variable. Dries papery dark purple. Nut globose.

Vatica havilandii.

Vatica lobata.Vatica lobata
resak paya

Endemic sp from Sg Paka, Trengganu. Swampy land near streams, now critically endangered if not extinct due to conversion of habitat to estate. Obovate leaf with only 5 prs nerves. 1 fr TH 11/09.

Vatica lobata. Vatica lobata.

Vatica lowii King emend. Sym.
DIPTEROCARPACEAE
resak pipit
From SE Thailand to Johor. Small bluntly acuminate leaf. Typical Vatica, up to 1.5m girth. From Tunas Harapan 6.12

Vatica nitens King
resak daun panjang
Malay peninsula and NW Borneo. From Penang and s. Kedah to Panti, s. Johor. Common in northern Selangor but not abundant anywhere. Vulnerable to logging and forest conversion. Large oblong leaves, bole up to 3m girth.

Vatica odorata (Griff.) Sym.
resak ranting kesat
Throughout Malaya, more common in north. Sub species, on low hills. Rusty pink tomentose young twigs (kesat: rough twigs) and semi-inferior fruits. Fr Tunas Harapan 6.12.

Vatica pauciflora (Korth.) Bl.
resak paya
Fr S Vietnam to S Sumatra, in low lying swampy habitat. Vulnerable due to fragmentation. Typical Vatica, less than 3m girth, wingless fruits adapted for water dispersal. Tunas Harapan 6.12.

Vatica stapfiana (King) Sloot
resak mempening, resak laru
Malaya and Sumatra. Not uncommon in Selangor, Perak, Pahang, often in valleys, near streams. Rarely exceeds 1m girth, exudations of yellow dammar. Fruits resemble acorns of Quercus, mempening.

Vatica venulosa Bl.
DIPTEROCARPACEAE
resak letup
Malaya, Sumatra, W Java, Borneo. Near streams in damp soil, probably endangered, but not studied. Typical small Vatica, <1m girth. Small leaves, nut concealed by 5 sepal wings 3 cm long. Lata Belatan, Trengganu. TH 6.2012.

Vatica yeechongii
Endemic sp from Sg Lalang FR Selangor, first described in 2002, on slope not far from Saraca stream. V large leaves, 40cm long, billowed between at least 28 prs nerves, short stout petiole and stout twigs. 1 fr TH 11/09

Vatica yeechongii.


Last updated 30 July 2012.

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